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Understanding this process is crucial for the future development of clean, renewable and unlimited energy sources.

We have been focusing on the role of two lumenal proteins in the water oxidation process, Psb O and Cah3,which are associated with the thylakoid membrane.

APX, ascorbate peroxidase, BSA, bovine serum albumin, CAT, catalase, DTT, dithiothreitol, EM, electron microscopy, GR, glutathione reductase, IEF, isoelectric focusing, LSD, least significant diference, MDA, malondialdehyde, PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PMSF, phenyl methylsulphonyl fluoride, SEM, scanning electron microscopy, SOD, superoxide dismutase, TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances.

Oxidating a plant

We have known for many years how electrons are transported in the photosynthetic light reac- tions,but we have very limited information on how the protons are transported.

Protons must be transported away from the catalytic centre, otherwise the oxidation reaction cannot occur with full efficiency.

This complexity arises as a result of a long-standing evolutionary battle in which the pathogen attempts to invade and multiply and the plant attempts to recognize and defend itself from this invasion.

The pathogen must then take steps to escape detection or to avoid triggering a response, which will prevent its entry into, or proliferation within, plant tissues.

One of the earliest and best-characterized responses of a plant to pathogen invasion is known as the oxidative burst.

High concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced at the plasma membrane in the vicinity of the pathogen (Doke, 1983; Lamb & Dixon, 1997; Wojtaszek, 1997).

We also explore the ways in which pseudomonads may exploit plant ROS generation for their own purposes and even produce ROS directly as part of their infection mechanisms.

The interaction between plant pathogens and their hosts is complex.

Soil flooding in wetlands is accompanied by changes in soil physical and chemical characteristics.

These changes include the lowering of soil redox potential (Eh) leading to increasing demand for oxygen within the soil profile as well as production of soil phytotoxins that are by-products of soil reduction and thus, imposing potentially severe stress on plant roots.

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